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Lewis T. Blount Knowledge Center Of Hemp Science

The Endocannabinoid System

An Endogenous Cannabinoid System (ECS), commonly referred to as an “Endocannabinoid System,” is found in every human and animal and regulates a broad range of biological functions. 8 The ECS is a biochemical control system of neuromodulatory lipids (molecules that include fats, waxes, sterols and fat-soluble vitamins such as vitamins A, D, E and K and others) and specialized receptors configured to accept certain cannabinoids. 8 In general, a given receptor will accept only particular classes of compounds and will be unaffected by other compounds, just as a specific key is needed to open a lock. 8

Specialized receptors are located throughout the human body, including but not limited to, in the hippocampus (memory, learning), the cerebral cortex (decision-making, emotional behavior), the cerebellum (motor control, coordination), putamen (movement, learning), the hypothalamus (appetite, body temperature) and the amygdala (emotions). 8 When a specific cannabinoid or combination of cannabinoids bind to a specialized receptor, an event or a series of events, is triggered in the cell, resulting in a change in the cell’s activity, its gene regulation and/or the signals that it sends to neighboring cells. This process is called “signal transduction.” 8

Receptors7

Particularly, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) encompasses two key receptors of great value to our bodies. These receptors are named CB1-R and CB2-R. 7 They play an integral part within the endocannabinoid system, as they are directly interconnected with our physiological processes. When our bodies ingest Cannabidiol (CBD), Cannabinol (CBN) and/or Tetrahydrocannibinol (THC), these cannabinoids naturally bond with native receptors, CB1-R and CB2-R. 7

The CB2-R Receptor

CB2-R are primarily associated with the immune system and found outside of the brain in such places as the gut, spleen, liver, heart, kidneys, bones, blood vessels, lymph cells, endocrine glands and reproductive organs. 8 For example, CBD is keyed to CB2-R, and good evidence shows CBD is a beneficial therapeutic strategy to lessen the impact of inflammatory and neuro-inflammatory diseases.8 Until recently, it was believed that CB-2R played no role with nerve cells or bundles.8 However, studies now show that it also plays an important role in the signal processing of the brain.8

While your body naturally produces cannabinoids, consumption of cannabinoid infused products such as CBD, are another means of giving your body an additional boost to trigger reactions within the ECS. The ECS can control everything from autophagy (the process in which a cell will get rid of and recycle any parts that aren’t functioning properly) to communication between different cell types.8

“CB1-R receptors are primarily found in the brain and central nervous system. CB2-R receptors are mostly found in peripheral organs, especially cells associated with the immune system.”

Terpenes & Cannabinoids

In addition to the cannabinoids as discussed, exists terpenes. Terpenes are synthesized in cannabis in secretory cells inside glandular trichomes, and production is increased with light exposure. These terpenes are mostly found in high concentrations in unfertilized female cannabis flowers prior to senescence (the condition or process of deterioration with age). They play an incredibly important role by providing the plant with natural protection from bacteria and fungus, insects and other environmental stresses.8 Studies prove that the cannabis plant contains over 100 different compounds with no two of them, identical in composition. Each genetic profile or strain of plant contains different quantities of these compounds.

Terpenes are the compounds responsible for the fragrant oils that give cannabis its aromatic diversity.7 They’re what give Blueberry its signature berry smell, and Lavender its sweet floral aroma. The essential oil is extracted from the plant material by steam distillation or vaporization. Many terpenes vaporize around the same temperature as THC (which boils at about 157°C), but some terpenes are more volatile than others.8 Aromatic descriptors such as skunky, cheesy, floral, peppery, and many others are all commonly used to describe different strains of cannabis.6 These organoleptic characteristics (flavors and smells) of specific strains of hemp are, for the most part, directly attributable to the presence, volume, and combination of specific terpenes/terpenoids.6

The oils are secreted in the flower’s sticky resin glands, the same ones that produce THC, CBD, and other cannabinoids. Terpenes are by no means unique to cannabis; they can be found in many other herbs, fruits, and plants. They have extensive uses in everyday life including foods, cosmetics, aromatherapies, perfumes, and pharmaceuticals. 6

Many terpenes also have bio-active properties and are used in medical applications for the treatment of human diseases in conventional western medicine, including anti-cancer and anti-malarial pharmaceuticals.6 The relationship between terpenes and cannabinoids, known as the “entourage effect,” may ultimately differentiate the effects of one strain of cannabis from another.6

Dominant Terpenes Found In Cannabis/Hemp

According to scientists at, SC Labs, typical strains have the following six terpenoids: Myrcene (~43%), ß Caryophyllene group (~23%), Limonene group (~16%), Terpinolene (~10%), α Pinene (~6.5%), and the ß-Ocimene outlier group (~1%)

In addition to being predominantly responsible for the organoleptic characteristics, there is also evidence that terpenoids may have profound effects on the pharmacological and therapeutic effects of the cannabinoids.6 Terpenoids are quite potent by themselves and affect both animal and human behavior when inhaled from ambient air at serum levels in the single digits ng/mL1. 6

It’s important to note that there are many factors that impact an individual’s experience when using cannabis or cannabis infused products.6 The intensity of how any substance affects an individual is contingent upon a variety of factors including, but not limited to, the following:

  • body size
  • general health
  • the amount and strength of the dose
  • mental health, mood, and environment
  • with or without food consumption
  • and whether any other drugs are in the system at the same time

Typical Effect Profiles

All strains can vary greatly from one source to another or one harvest to the next. Those with relatively high concentrations of specific terpenes do, however, make them easier to identify by their smell than other strains.8 Most agree that varieties that smell of musk or of clove deliver sedative, relaxing effects (high level of the terpene myrcene); piney smells help promote mental alertness and memory retention (high level of the terpene pinene); and lemony aromas are favored for general uplift in mood and attitude (high level of limonene).8

The Flavor Wheel Profile

Spectral analysis performed by Green House Seed Co., enabled distinct identification of the terpenes in each of their strains, and developed a “flavor wheel” to help medical marijuana patients decide on their strain of choice based on the effects desired.8 Although one of the primary purposes of the wheel was to market different seeds for this particular company, the concept and vocabulary used is becoming an invaluable tool for the study of cannabis and choice in consumer consumption.

Since the original Green House model, several companies have developed their own terpene and hemp wheels. It is by mapping out terpene profiles, we are able to predict and even manipulate the effects and medicinal value of varieties, providing endless opportunities for developing new, highly-desired cannabis strains by basing breeding decisions on real analytical data.8 The more we provide transparency, enhance our understanding and communicate using the same language, the easier it will become for the hemp/cannabis connoisseur, consumer and patient.

BETA-CARYOPHYLLENE

Beta-caryophyllene is a sesquiterpene found in many plants such as Thai basils, cloves, cinnamon leaves and black pepper, and in minor quantities in lavender. It’s aroma has been described as peppery, woody and/or spicy. Caryophyllene is the only terpene known to interact with the endocannabinoid system (CB2). Studies show B–caryophyllene holds promise in cancer treatment plans. Research shows that B–caryophyllene selectively binds to the CB2 receptor and that it is a functional CB2 agonist. Further, B–caryophyllene was identifed as a functional non-psychoactive CB2 receptor ligand in foodstuf and as a macrocyclic anti-infammatory cannabinoid in cannabis.

HUMULENE

Humulene is a sesquiterpene also known as a-humulene and a–caryophyllene; an isomer of B–caryophyllene. Humulene is found in hops, cannabis sativa strains, and Vietnamese coriander, among other naturally occurring substances. Humulene is what gives beer its distinct ‘hoppy’ aroma. Humulene is considered to be anti-tumor, anti-bacterial, anti-infammatory, and anorectic (suppresses appetite). It has commonly been blended with B–caryophyllene and used as a major remedy for infammation. Humulene has been used for generations in Chinese medicine. It aids in weight loss by acting as an appetite suppressant.

MYRCENE

Myrcene, specifcally B-myrcene, is a monoterpene and the most common terpene produced by cannabis (some varieties contain up to 60% of the essential oil). Its aroma has been described as musky, earthy, herbal – akin to cloves. A high myrcene level in cannabis (usually above 0.5%) results in the well-known “couch-lock” efect of classic Indica medicinal cannabis strains. Myrcene is found in oil of hops, citrus fruits, bay leaves, eucalyptus, wild thyme, lemon grass and many other plants. Myrcene has some very special medicinal properties, including lowering the resistance across the blood to brain barrier, allowing itself and many other chemicals to cross the barrier easier and more quickly

PULEGONE

Pulegone, a monocyclic monoterpenoid, is a minor component of cannabis. Higher concentrations of pulegone are found in rosemary. Rosemary breaks down acetylcholine in the brain, allowing nerve cells to communicate more efectively with one another. An ethnopharmacology study indicates pulegone may have signifcant sedative and fever-reducing properties. It may also alleviate the side efects of short-term memory loss sometimes associated with long term use of THC.

CAMPHENE

Camphene is monoterpene which emits pungent odors of damp woodlands and fr needles. Camphene may play a critical role in cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies have found camphene reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats. Given the importance that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in heart disease, the results of this study provide insight into how camphene might be used as an alternative to pharmaceutical lipid lowering agents which are proven to cause intestinal problems, liver damage and muscle infammation. This fnding alone warrants further investigation

LINALOOL

 Linalool is a monoterpenoid and has been described as having foral and lavender undertones. Varieties high in linalool promote calming, relaxing efects. Linalool has been used for centuries as a sleep aid. Linalool lessens the anxious emotions provoked by pure THC, thus making it helpful in the treatment of both psychosis and anxiety. Studies also suggest that linalool boosts the immune system; can signifcantly reduce lung infammation; and can restore cognitive and emotional function (making it useful in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease).

PHELLANDRENE

Phellandrene is described as pepperminty, with a slight scent of citrus. Phellandrene is believed to have special medicinal values. It has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine to treat digestive disorders. It is one of the main compounds in turmeric leaf oil, which is used to prevent and treat systemic fungal infections.

TERPINEOL

a-Terpineol, terpinen-4-ol, and 4-terpineol are three closely related monoterpenoids. The aroma of terpineol has been compared to lilacs and fower blossoms. Terpineol is often found in cannabis varieties that have high pinene levels, which unfortunately mask the fragrant aromas of terpineol. Terpineol, specifcally a-terpineol, is known to have calming, relaxing efects. It also exhibits antibiotic, AChe inhibitor and antioxidant antimalarial properties.

CARENE

Camphene is monoterpene which emits pungent odors of damp woodlands and fr needles. Camphene may play a critical role in cardiovascular disease. Clinical studies have found camphene reduces plasma cholesterol and triglycerides in hyperlipidemic rats. Given the importance that the control of hyperlipidemia plays in heart disease, the results of this study provide insight into how camphene might be used as an alternative to pharmaceutical lipid lowering agents which are proven to cause intestinal problems, liver damage and muscle infammation. This fnding alone warrants further investigation

LIMONENE

Limonene is a monoterpenoid and one of two major compounds formed from pinene. As the name suggests, varieties high in limonene have strong citrusy smells like oranges, lemons and limes. Strains high in limonene promote a general uplift in mood and attitude. This citrusy terpene is the major constituent in citrus fruit rinds, rosemary, juniper and peppermint, as well as in several pine needle oils. Limonene is highly absorbed by inhalation and quickly appears in the bloodstream. Clinical studies have shown that it assists in the absorption of other terpenes through the skin and other body tissue

PINENE

Akin to its name, pinene has distinctive aromas of pine and fr. Pinene is one of the principal monoterpenes that is important physiologically in both plants and animals. It tends to react with other chemicals, forming a variety of other terpenes (like limonene) and other compounds. Pinene is used in medicine as an anti-infammatory, expectorant, bronchodilator and local antiseptic. Clinical studies indicate that the efects of THC may be lessened if mixed with pinene.

TERPINOLENE

Terpinolene is a common component of sage and rosemary and is found in the oil derived from Monterey cypress. Its largest use in the United States is in soaps and perfumes. It is also a great insect repellent. Terpinolene is known to have a piney aroma with slight herbal and foral nuances. It tends to have a sweet favor reminiscent of citrus fruits like oranges and lemons. Terpinolene has been found to be a central nervous system depressant used to induce drowsiness or sleep or to reduce psychological excitement or anxiety. Further, terpinolene was found to markedly reduce the protein expression of AKT1 in K562 cells and inhibited cell proliferation involved in a variety of human cancers.

GERANIOL

Geraniol produces a sweet, delightful smell similar to roses. This makes geraniol a popular choice for many bath and body products. It is also known to be an efective mosquito repellent. Medically, geraniol shows promise in the treatment of neuropathy.

Cannabidiol (CBD) Product Variants

There are three main types of cannabidiol (CBD). CBD isolate is the pure form of CBD, while full-spectrum CBD is an extract containing other compounds of the cannabis plant, such as terpenes and other cannabinoids.9 The third type is broad-spectrum CBD, which shares similar characteristics as full spectrum.

CBD Isolate

CBD isolate is the purest form of CBD that comes from hemp plants containing very low amounts of THC. It contains no other cannabis plant compounds. CBD isolate is a crystal form of CBD and is often sold as a powder. It is refined, so it has no discernible taste or odor.9 It may be a suitable product for first-time CBD users who wish to experiment with the potential health benefits, without the interference of other cannabis compounds, which may alter the effects.

Full Spectrum CBD

Full-spectrum CBD products contains multiple cannabis plant extracts, including essential oils, terpenes, and other cannabinoids, such as cannabinol (CBN). Full-spectrum CBD products may also contain up to 0.3%, (what is considered to be non-detectable (ND)) of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the cannabinoid in the cannabis plant that produces the ‘high’ feeling in people.9 Thus, please note that the more one may consume, the greater the potential of experiencing the intoxicating properties of this cannabinoid. No, it doesn’t mean that it will get one “high” per se’, but in the event of a substantial amount of consumption, one could expect to experience an heightened feeling of relaxation.

Generally, such a low amount is not strong enough to have significant psychoactive effects.  Due to its genetic composition, it may have a more potent effect than pure CBD alone. Multiple studies suggests that CBD’s health benefits may be more prominent when multiple compounds from the cannabis plant are present inducing the ‘entourage effect’.9

Broad Spectrum CBD

Broad-spectrum CBD is very similar to full-spectrum CBD in that it contains additional cannabis plant compounds. Most broad-spectrum CBD products contain zero or only trace amounts of THC, but there should be less than the 0.3% contained in full-spectrum products. Like full-spectrum CBD, broad-spectrum products may have a higher probability of producing beneficial health effects than CBD isolate because of the entourage effect.9

Knowledge Center Summary

We are experiencing breakthroughs in scientific research every day. It is what aids in our preparation, by way of sustainability and adaptability for future generations of the world to come. The study and research of the potential healing effects of the cannabis plant is evolving every day. Its cannabinoids and terpenes are beginning to appear in pharmaceutical medicines aimed to treat critical ailments of varying degrees.

Since its recent (Farm Bill 2018) inception back into society, CBD has been known to be excellent for improving productivity because it helps balance the mind and aids the body in restoring itself to homeostasis (the tendency of a physiological system to maintain internal stability). Additionally, it is known to boosts energy levels and improve mental focus. The usage of CBD induces a cool and even mindset, which is becoming increasingly critical for our day-to-day interactions, within the current state of a world that has become so politically stringent. CBD products are great for winding down after a stressful day and will work to help promote sleep, resulting into a more restful night.

As the world continues to make forward progression towards recognizing these benefits, there will be a persistent effort to abolish the stigma of cannabinoid consumption. Specifically, in a world where it was once heavily used to aid in medicinal practices, in addition to an array of products such as paper, rope, sails and clothing; generating streams of revenue that have proven to provide substantial monetary gains, benefiting numerous local economies. Our company’s contribution to this effort is to increase awareness through sharing information cited from thorough scholarly research (QUALITY) and providing the most current up-to-date breakthroughs and news within this evolving industry (CONSISTENCY).

At Mai Tai’s, LLC we pride ourselves on being a company of immense INTEGRITY meaning; we say what we mean, and we do what we say. We are only able to achieve this level of honesty and moral standard, through TRANSPARENCY. Hence enabling Mai Tai’s, LLC the ability to promote our products with a clean mind and healthy consciousness. Once you’ve explored our LEWIS T. BLOUNT KNOWLEDGE CENTER OF HEMP SCIENCE don’t forget to visit our array of Celestial Creations Premium Grade CBD Products, inspired by real Angels, aimed to help you in your journey of exploration and enlightenment.  

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